Air pollution can alter effectiveness of antibiotics, say researchers

Researchers from the University of Leicester have for the first time discovered that bacteria that cause respiratory infections are directly affected by air pollution – increasing the potential for infection and changing the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment.

The study, which has been published in the journal Environmental Microbiology, has implications for the treatment of infectious diseases, which are known to be increased in areas with high levels of air pollution.
It looked into how air pollution affects the bacteria living in our bodies, specifically the respiratory tract – the nose, throat and lungs.
A major component of air pollution is black carbon, produced through the burning of fossil fuels such as diesel, biofuels, and biomass.
The research shows that this pollutant changes the way in which bacteria grow and form communities, which could affect how they survive on the lining of our respiratory tracts and how well they are able to hide from, and combat, our immune systems.
Dr Julie Morrissey, Associate Professor in Microbial Genetics in the Department of Genetics and lead author on the paper, said: “This work increases our understanding of how air pollution affects human health. It shows that the bacteria which cause respiratory infections are affected by air pollution, possibly increasing the risk of infection and the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of these illnesses.
“Our research could initiate an entirely new understanding of how air pollution affects human health. It will lead to enhancement of research to understand how air pollution leads to severe respiratory problems and perturbs the environmental cycles essential for life.” The research focused on two human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pictured), both causes of respiratory disease.